ADHD versus ADD: How do they differ?
ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) and ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) are neurodevelopmental disorders affecting attention, impulse control, and executive functions. However, the distinction between ADHD and ADD has evolved. In the past, ADD was used to describe a subtype of ADHD known as “Predominantly Inattentive Presentation.” This subtype is characterized by primarily struggling with inattention and difficulty sustaining focus. Individuals with this subtype typically do not display significant hyperactivity or impulsivity.
However, in current diagnostic criteria, the term ADD is no longer used, and the condition is now referred to as the “Predominantly Inattentive Presentation of ADHD.” ADHD is now recognized as a broader umbrella term that encompasses three subtypes or presentations:
Predominantly Inattentive Presentation: This presentation is characterized by significant inattention, distractibility, disorganization, and difficulty sustaining attention. Hyperactivity and impulsivity are typically minimal or absent.
Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Presentation: This presentation involves prominent hyperactivity, impulsivity, and attention difficulties. Individuals may be excessively fidgety, restless, talkative, and have difficulty waiting their turn.
Combined Presentation: This is the most common subtype of ADHD. Individuals with the combined presentation experience significant symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. They struggle with maintaining attention, are restless and impulsive, and find it challenging to regulate their behavior. It’s important to note that these subtypes are not distinct disorders but somewhat different manifestations within the broader diagnosis of ADHD. The specific subtype may vary among individuals, and symptoms can change over time.
Additionally, it’s worth mentioning that ADHD is a clinical diagnosis made by healthcare professionals based on specific criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). It involves a comprehensive evaluation that considers symptoms, impairment, and duration. While ADD is no longer used in current diagnostic criteria, the predominantly inattentive presentation remains a recognized subtype within the umbrella term ADHD.
Online ADHD Treatment –
Online ADHD treatment offers convenient and accessible options for individuals with ADHD. It may include virtual therapy sessions, cognitive training programs, psychoeducation, and medication management through telehealth platforms. Online resources, support groups, and digital tools can enhance self-management and skill-building and provide ongoing support for managing ADHD symptoms.
Cheapest Online ADHD Treatment –
The cost of online ADHD treatment can vary depending on the specific program or service. However, some affordable options may include free or low-cost online resources such as informational websites, self-help guides, and support groups. Some mental health apps or online therapy platforms may offer affordable subscription plans or sliding scale fees.
Medication Side Effects of Stimulant ADHD Medications –
Stimulant medications are commonly prescribed for treating ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder). While they can effectively manage symptoms, they may also have potential side effects.
Here are some commonly reported side effects of stimulant ADHD medications:
Decreased appetite: Stimulants can suppress appetite, leading to reduced food intake and potential weight loss. This side effect is usually temporary and diminishes over time or during medication breaks.
Insomnia: Stimulant medications can interfere with sleep, making falling or staying asleep difficult. Taking the medication earlier in the day or adjusting the dosage can help mitigate this side effect.
Increased heart rate and blood pressure: Stimulants can temporarily elevate heart rate and blood pressure. Monitoring cardiovascular health is essential, especially for individuals with pre-existing heart conditions.
Gastrointestinal issues: Some individuals may experience stomach discomfort, nausea, or digestive disturbances as a side effect of stimulant medication.
Mood changes: Stimulants can occasionally lead to mood swings, irritability, or emotional instability. If these symptoms become severe or persistent, consulting with a healthcare professional is essential.
Headaches: Some individuals may experience headaches as a side effect of stimulant medications. Staying hydrated and adjusting the dosage or timing of medication administration may help alleviate this.
Tics: In rare cases, stimulant medications can exacerbate or trigger motor or vocal tics in individuals with a pre-existing tic disorder. It’s crucial to remember that not everyone experiences these side effects, and the severity and frequency can vary among individuals.
Several therapy options will help you to deal with ADHD; they are like;
Psychotherapy will help you express your feelings and better handle your relationships.
Behavior therapy; Its significant goal is to introduce how to monitor and change their behaviors appropriately.
Cognitive behavioral therapy; Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a goal-oriented, short-term psychotherapy approach that focuses on changing thoughts and behaviors for improved mental health.
Mindfulness for ADHD involves practicing nonjudgmental awareness of the present moment to cultivate attention and reduce impulsivity. It helps individuals with ADHD observe their thoughts and emotions without reacting impulsively, enhancing self-regulation and focus. Techniques like breath awareness, body scans, and mindful movement promote cognitive flexibility, emotional regulation, and better decision-making, aiding in managing ADHD symptoms and improving overall well-being. Regular mindfulness practice can enhance attention, reduce stress, and support self-compassion for individuals with ADHD.
Lifestyle Changes –
This is also an important section to keep in mind that your lifestyle directly impacts your problem. So below are some points to remember to live a heapy life ahead.
Proper sleep hygiene
Maintaining proper sleep hygiene is crucial for individuals with ADHD. Sufficient, high-quality sleep can improve attention, concentration, and overall cognitive functioning.
Healthy diet and nutrition
A healthy diet plays a vital role in managing ADHD symptoms. Focus on a balanced intake of nutrient-dense foods.
Regular exercise and physical activity
Exercise helps reduces hyperactivity, improve focus and attention, and regulate mood.
These are a few ways to fight ADHD.
Sleep Nutrition Routine Accountability ADHD Symptoms –
The relationship between sleep, nutrition, routine, and ADHD symptoms is multifaceted.
Here’s a breakdown of each component: Sleep: Adequate sleep is crucial for individuals with ADHD as it directly impacts attention, impulsivity, and overall cognitive function. Poor sleep quality or insufficient sleep can worsen ADHD symptoms. Establishing a consistent sleep routine, creating a calm sleep environment, and practicing good sleep hygiene can help promote better sleep.
Nutrition: While there is no specific ADHD diet, maintaining a balanced and nutritious diet is generally beneficial for overall health and may indirectly impact ADHD symptoms. Some studies suggest that certain nutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids, iron, and zinc, might be linked to improved ADHD symptoms. However, more research is needed to establish specific dietary guidelines.
Routine: Establishing a structured routine can help individuals with ADHD manage their symptoms more effectively. A consistent daily activity schedule, including mealtimes, work/study periods, and leisure time, can enhance organization, time management, and overall functioning.
Accountability: Creating systems for accountability, such as using calendars, reminders, or task management tools, can assist individuals with ADHD in staying on track and managing their responsibilities more effectively.
It’s important to note that while sleep, nutrition, routine, and accountability can positively impact ADHD symptoms, they are not standalone treatments for ADHD. They should be combined with other evidence-based strategies, such as medication, therapy, and behavioral interventions, to manage ADHD comprehensively.
Impulsiveness is a common symptom of ADHD characterized by acting without thinking. Treatment approaches aim to develop strategies to improve impulse control and decision-making skills for individuals with ADHD.
Disorganization is a common challenge for individuals with ADHD, leading to difficulties with time management, planning, and maintaining order. Strategies and interventions focus on improving organizational skills and creating effective systems for managing tasks and responsibilities.
Inability to Focus –
The inability to focus is a hallmark symptom of ADHD, causing difficulty sustaining attention and staying on task. Treatment approaches aim to improve focus through environmental modifications, task prioritization, and medication when necessary.
Constant Restlessness –
Constant restlessness is a common symptom experienced by individuals with ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder). It is often associated with the hyperactive component of ADHD.
Here are some key points to understand about constant restlessness in ADHD:
Hyperactivity: Hyperactivity in ADHD refers to excessive and persistent motor activity. It can manifest as restlessness, fidgeting, and an internal sense of restlessness or agitation.
Difficulty sitting still: Individuals with ADHD often struggle with remaining seated or staying in one place for extended periods. They may feel a strong urge to move around, shift positions frequently, or engage in repetitive movements.
Restlessness and impulsivity: Restlessness in ADHD is closely tied to impulsivity. Individuals may feel a constant need to be on the go, have difficulty resisting the urge to act on impulses and struggle with waiting their turn or following instructions that require stillness.
Impact on daily life: Constant restlessness can interfere with daily activities, including school, work, and social interactions. It may affect concentration, disrupt productivity, and make engaging in tasks that require sustained mental effort challenging.
Coping strategies: Various strategies can help manage restlessness in ADHD. These include incorporating regular physical activity, such as exercise breaks or fidget toys, to channel excess energy. Providing structured routines, frequent breaks, and incorporating movement into tasks can also be beneficial.
Forgetfulness/Time Management Issues –
This is the most common sign of people with ADHD. They commonly forget things or find it harder to manage their time for their work.
Frustration is usually because they are going through a lot of chores throughout the day; the person with ADHD generally fights with themself to recognize, remember the little things, and be focused, so it’s very typical to get frustrated.
Types of ADHD –
There are three major classifications of ADHD; let’s know about them in detail;
Inattentive ADHD –
Inattentive ADHD, also known as ADHD Predominantly Inattentive Presentation, is one of the subtypes of ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder). It is characterized primarily by attention, organization, and sustaining focus difficulties.
Here are some key features and symptoms associated with inattentive ADHD:
Inattention: Individuals with inattentive ADHD often struggle with maintaining attention and focus, particularly during tasks that require sustained mental effort or attention to detail. They may appear to be daydreaming, easily distracted, or have difficulty staying on track.
Organization and time management difficulties: Individuals with inattentive ADHD may struggle with organization, often misplacing or losing items and managing time and deadlines.
Lack of sustained mental effort: Tasks that are not inherently interesting or stimulating may be particularly challenging for individuals with inattentive ADHD. They may find it difficult to stay engaged or complete tasks that require sustained mental effort.
Forgetfulness: Forgetfulness occurs daily among individuals with inattentive ADHD, often forgetting appointments, deadlines, or essential details.
Avoidance of tasks requiring mental effort: Due to the challenges in sustaining attention, individuals with inattentive ADHD may actively avoid tasks that require prolonged mental effort or concentration.
Careless mistakes: Inattentive ADHD can lead to a higher likelihood of careless mistakes in academic and work settings. It’s important to note that the symptoms of inattentive ADHD can vary among individuals and may present differently at different stages of life.
Hyperactive and Impulsive ADHD –
Hyperactive and Impulsive ADHD, also known as ADHD Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Presentation, is one of the subtypes of ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder). It is characterized primarily by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and difficulties with attention. Here are some key features and symptoms associated with hyperactive and impulsive ADHD:
Hyperactivity: Individuals with hyperactive and impulsive ADHD may have excess physical restlessness and appear constantly “on the go.” They may have difficulty sitting still, squirming, or fidgeting and feel an inner sense of restlessness.
Impulsivity: Impulsivity refers to acting without thinking, often resulting in impulsive behaviors or decisions. Individuals with hyperactive and impulsive ADHD may have difficulty controlling their impulses, blurting out answers, interrupting others, or engaging in impulsive actions without considering the consequences.
Difficulty with attention: Although hyperactivity and impulsivity are more prominent in this subtype, individuals with hyperactive and impulsive ADHD may struggle with attention and focus. They may have trouble sustaining attention and quickly become distracted or bored.
Risk-taking behavior: The combination of hyperactivity and impulsivity can lead to risky behaviors without considering potential dangers or long-term consequences.
Poor impulse control: Individuals with hyperactive and impulsive ADHD may have difficulty controlling their urges or regulating their behavior in social situations. They may struggle with following rules, taking turns, or waiting patiently.
Restlessness and excessive talking: Hyperactive and impulsive ADHD often manifests as excessive talking, feeling restless, and having difficulty engaging in activities that require sustained mental effort.
Combined ADHD, also known as ADHD Combined Presentation, is one of the subtypes of ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder). It is characterized by a combination of symptoms related to both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Individuals with combined ADHD exhibit significant challenges in multiple areas of functioning. Here are some key features and symptoms associated with combined ADHD:
Individuals with combined ADHD struggle to maintain attention, focus on tasks, and follow instructions. They may have difficulty organizing tasks, often losing track of belongings and being forgetful.
Hyperactivity combined with ADHD manifests as excessive physical restlessness and a constant need for movement. Individuals may have difficulty sitting still, constantly fidgeting, or feeling restless.
Impulsivity refers to acting without thinking and making hasty decisions. People with combined ADHD may have trouble controlling their impulses, interrupting others, and engaging in impulsive behaviors.
Individuals with combined ADHD have difficulty sustaining attention, particularly in tasks that are not inherently interesting or stimulating. They may quickly become bored, distracted, and have trouble focusing on details.
Executive functions, such as planning, organization, and time management, are often impaired in combined ADHD. Difficulties with organizing and prioritizing tasks, managing time effectively, and completing assignments on time are common.
The combined inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity symptoms can impact academic performance and social interactions. Individuals may struggle with meeting academic expectations, following rules, and maintaining positive relationships.
Now let’s know the medicines that are in shortage.
Adderall is a prescription medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It contains a combination of amphetamine salts that help increase focus and attention and reduce hyperactivity. It is a controlled substance and should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare professional to manage potential side effects and risks.
Vyvanse is a prescription medication used to treat ADHD and binge eating disorders. It contains lisdexamfetamine, which helps increase focus, reduce impulsivity, and control appetite. Vyvanse is a stimulant that needs to be prescribed and monitored by a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and abuse risks.
Concerta is a prescription medication commonly used to treat ADHD. It contains the active ingredient methylphenidate and is classified as a long-acting stimulant. It helps improve focus and attention and reduce hyperactivity. As with other stimulant medications, a healthcare professional should prescribe and monitor them due to potential side effects and risks.
Ritalin, known as methylphenidate, is a prescription medication commonly used to treat ADHD and narcolepsy. It belongs to the class of central nervous system stimulants. Ritalin helps increase focus, reduce impulsivity, and improve attention in individuals with ADHD. It is available in immediate-release and extended-release formulations and should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and risks.
It’s not officially confirmed that they are in shortage, but according to some sources, the information is given.